MORE THAN 113 SPECIES
numerous variety, forms and natural and horticultural hybrids
In 1658 the governor of Madagascar, E. de Flacourt, made a preliminary description of this genus and was given the name Amramitico in the same year. In 1689 JP Breyne named it Nepenthes, JD Hooker and L. Tate demonstrated the plant digestion ablility and the presence of enzymes in 1874 and 1875. The name comes from the Greek Nepenthe means "without sorrow": dispel the gloom.
The growing Nepenthes area extends from Madagascar island and the Comoros in the west, to the New Caledonia to the east. A maximum of species are located in Southeast Asia: Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Celebes, Philippines, New Guinea.
BiotopeThe plants growsunder a tropical climate. They inhabit marshes, forests, mossy rocks, edges of ponds, brackish water, some are even epiphytes.
Their distribution is done according to species, the sea level to over 3500 m. Temperatures can undergo significant differences between day and night as soon as the altitude increases. Rainfall is often heavy, sometimes with persistent fog, the famous Nepenthes rajah living in Borneo receives over 150 inches of rain per year. The soil in which plants grow is very different: soil called serpentine (hydrated magnesium silicate), sandy soil (sometimes high in sea salt), marshes, granite soil. The orchid genus Malaxis, Paphiopedilum, Phalaenopsis etc... can sometimes thrive in their company.
DescriptionPerennials, herbaceous or semi-woody, terrestrial or epiphytic, often climbing from tens of centimeters to several meters. The leaves are green, leathery, lanceolate, sometimes spatulate, are fitted at one end by a tendril bearing an urn with a lid.
The traps are located at the tip of the leaves and transformed into ascidians, often with a cylindrical upper portion: the peristome. The shapes and colors are variable and the size ranges from 5 cm to 35 cm high.
The prey are attracted by the nectar secreted by the traps and eventually slide into the bottom of the pitcher where they drown. Enzymes break down the tissues and absorption occurs through glands. The prey are heterogeneous in their origins and their sizes: Coleoptera, Diptera, myriapods ... Frogs and young rats very occasionally, .
The small flowers without petals are united in panicle. The plants are male and female: the flowers are in capitulum.